Terça-feira, 03.03.09

 

SACKS, Oliver (1909). Seeing Voices. A Journey into the Land of the Deaf. Berkeley: University of California Press.(tr. port. Vendo Vozes. Uma Jornada pelo Mundo dos Surdos. Rio de Janeiro: Imago Editora).
 
Seeing Voices begins with the history of deaf people in the United States, the often outrageous ways in which they have been seen and treated in the past, and their continuing struggle for acceptance in a hearing world. And it examines the amazing and beautiful visual language of the deaf--Sign--which has only in the past decade been recognized fully as a language--linguistically complete, rich, and as expressive as any spoken language.

The existence of this unique alternative mode of language, writes Dr. Sacks, has wide-ranging implications for those in the hearing world as well, for it "shows us that much of what is distinctly human in us--our capacities for language, for thought, for communication, and culture--do not develop automatically in us, are not just biological functions, but are, equally, social and historical in origin; that they are a gift--the most wonderful of gifts--from one generation to another....The existence of a visual language, Sign, and of the striking enhancements of perception and visual intelligence that go with its acquisition, shows us that the brain is rich in potentials we would scarcely have guessed of, shows us the almost unlimited resource of the human organism when it is faced with the new and must adapt."

Sign is not only a language but the very medium of deaf culture. It stands at the center of the extraordinary social and political movement for deaf rights, which gained international attention with the uprising of deaf students at Gallaudet University in March 1988. In Part III of Seeing Voices, Dr. Sacks gives an eyewitness account of the revolt, and the students who organized it, and considers its impact on a new generation of deaf children.

Seeing Voices is a fascinating voyage into a strange and wonderful land, and along the way Oliver Sacks ponders the nature of talking and teaching, child development, the development and functioning of the nervous system, the formation of communities, worlds, and cultures, and the interface of language, biology, and culture.
 
(ver: http://www.oliversacks.com)


publicado por Eduardo Cabral às 18:52 | link do post | comentar

 

LANE, Harlan (1992). The Mask of Benevolence. Disabling the Deaf Community. New York: Alfred Knopf. (tr. port. de Cristina Reis, A Máscara da Benevolência. A Comunidade Surda Amordaçada, Lisboa, Instituto Piaget, 1997, pp. 286).

  

Review by Heather M. Sauber
Illinois State University
April 8, 1996
In the book The Mask of Benevolence, Harlan Lane compares the ideas that much like any minority in this country, blacks, women, Latinos and Asians, deaf people are also seen as cultural outsiders. Although deaf people look like every day individuals, they have their own language, values and cultures, that breaks them away from anyone else. Regardless of race, class, or gender each deaf person is discriminated against in this country as well as half of the other countries around the globe.

Most often Lane sees that the problems that are surrounding most deaf people is the stereotype "deaf and dumb". They are seen that way because the majority of educators, audiologists, and psychologists can not see beyond the mask. The tests that are administered to these individuals are often one-sided. The test givers are just as naive about how to administer the test instructions as the test taker themselves. The deaf persons results are lower than most other people. With a lower I.Q. rate, those who take the test are then seen as retarded.

Because of their lack of hearing and the primary usage of the manual language, American Sign Language (ASL), the deaf person is believed to be unable to perform in a hearing world. The deaf person will continually have a hard time trying to communicate with the people of the world when they are only taught rudimentary fundamentals of the English language. They will constantly be known in this world as "disabled" therefore encompassing them in a stereotype that refers to the fact that they must always be dependant upon someone else.

In fact this is true. For many years, the audist and the deaf person have entered into a world of elective co-dependence. Lane's position comes from a more historical stance. The hearing people believed that it was their duty to care for those who were in need while the deaf, whom were catered to, accepted this need for care because to them it was a sort of nurturing and loving and affection .

Lane also discusses the deaf culture. By other people's standards the deaf culture is not really prevalent, but Lane found that to be just the opposite. Deaf people have their own set of clubs and organizations that help them assimilate into the hearing world. It is often believed that deaf people have poor social awareness, are often isolated, cannot understand other hearing people, and can not communicate. Most like African American cultural stereotypes, deaf people appear to have one more thing in common, they are incompetent socially, cognitively, behavioral and emotionally. The minority itself believes that the only real solidarity is with others of that minority. The deaf person should feel free to flaunt his manual language and not be afraid of it.

Lane makes the majority of his allusions to deaf children along with the problems of Spanish-speaking children. Even though the both groups "come" to this country speaking very little if any of the native language, they are required to grasp it and use it as part of the everyday language. Lane states that:

"when a single language is the national language of the great majority, the dominant language group can inspire to impose that language on all the people in an attempt to replace minority languages outright"(112).

 

(continuar em: http://lilt.ilstu.edu/gmklass/pos334/archive/lane.htm)



publicado por Eduardo Cabral às 18:41 | link do post | comentar

 
LABORIT, Emmanuelle (1994). Le Cri de la Mouette. Paris: Robert Laffont (tr. port. O Grito da Gaivota. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho).
 
Primeiras linhas:

« Les mots sont une bizarrerie pour moi depuis mon enfance. Je dis bizarrerie, pour ce qu'il y eut d'abord d'étrange.
Que voulaient dire ces mimiques des gens autour de moi, leur bouche en cercle, ou étirée en grimaces différentes, leurs lèvres en curieuses positions ? Je " sentais " quelque chose de différent lorsqu'il s'agissait de la colère, de la tristesse ou du contentement, mais le mur invisible qui me séparait des sons correspondant à ces mimiques était à la fois vitre transparente et béton. Je m'agitais d'un côté de ce mur, et les autres faisaient de même de l'autre côté. Lorsque j'essayais de reproduire comme un petit singe leurs mimiques, ce n'étaient toujours pas des mots, mais des lettres visuelles. Parfois, on m'apprenait un mot d'une syllabe ou de deux syllabes qui se ressemblaient, comme " papa ", " maman ", " tata ".
Les concepts les plus simples étaient encore plus mystérieux. Hier, demain, aujourd'hui. Mon cerveau fonctionnait au présent. Que voulaient dire le passé et l'avenir ?
Lorsque j'ai compris, à l'aide des signes, qu'hier était derrière moi, et demain devant moi, j'ai fait un bond fantastique. Un progrès immense, que les entendants ont du mal à imaginer, habitués qu'ils sont à comprendre depuis le berceau les mots et les concepts répétés inlassablement, sans même qu'ils s'en rendent compte. »

 



publicado por Eduardo Cabral às 18:31 | link do post | comentar

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